This type of breeds are classified as dual-purpose (animal meat and you may egg) breeds, whether or not differences in adult system dimensions exists (Desk step 1)

This type of breeds are classified as dual-purpose (animal meat and you may egg) breeds, whether or not differences in adult system dimensions exists (Desk step 1)

The purpose of which efforts are to examine the end result off breed and you can decades on egg production therefore the egg outside and you may internal top quality in the five Italian dual-purpose breeds , initially and many days later than just first months laying activity one happened, respectively, at the end of summer/start of autumn plus winter season, around varying ecological standards.

dos.step one. Pet and Rearing Requirements

Five Italian poultry types, Pepoi (PP), Ermellinata di Rovigo (ER), Robusta Maculata (RM) and you can Robusta Lionata (RL), were considered to your data. The body weight off adult women was 1.25 kg inside PP, dos.30 kg within the Emergency room and you may 3.05 kilogram inside RM and you will RL. Its source is the Veneto region (Italy): PP try a vintage regional breed; their origin was dated back once again to the XIX century, but zero real studies into their genetic source can be found. The other types are produced during the Veneto from inside the 1950s: the newest Emergency room breed comes from Sussex (shaded eggshell reproduce) and Rhode Area (brown eggshell breed) breeds, whereas towards RM and you can RL types, Brownish Orpington and you will Light The united states, a couple brownish eggshell breeds were utilized . Also the mature lbs, such breeds differ within their plumage along with: it is fantastic for the PP, Emergency room suggests erminate plumage, RM plumage is mostly light having black colored extremities a number of nations of the human body, black colored feathers out of primaries and you can tail and you can RL shows a beneficial tawny plumage having black feathers of primaries and tail. The types (Figure S1) show solitary comb and you will place tinted eggshell egg (Contour S2).

2. Product and techniques

Wild birds regarding for every single breed hatched meanwhile (second half away from elizabeth farm of Centre getting Poultry Biodiversity Maintenance on Veneto area (it routinely offers brand new rearing of those breeds too as for the eggs manufacturing to own incubation and brooding), when you look at the North Italy (45°02?53? N), out of hatching for the pubertal many years and on the laying months, which been regarding the prevent regarding summer on beginning of trip (Shape step one), depending on the breed. Serving, rearing conditions (photoperiod, temperature) and you may prophylaxis methods was the same with the four types, from the time regarding hatching with the avoid of your learned period, that has been when you look at the , within 53 months old. New freshly hatched chicks was indeed kept indoors within the very first cuatro weeks off lives, within an ecological heat coming down off 32 in order to 24 °C, not as much as infra-purple light lights, with the litter. During the step one.5 weeks old, the new wild birds were given free the means to access outside spaces, out of spring season to help you trip and you will wintertime. For each breed (sixty hens) got 100 % free the means to access outdoor (5 meters 2 /bird) area (equipped with linear drinkers), in which the hens lived all round the day, and to indoor (cuatro hens/m 2 ) place (timber shavings and you will straw litter, which have perches and you can circular feeders), mainly used for putting egg (cumulative nests) and at nights; the area (indoor and you will outdoor) offered to per reproduce try split up from the netting.

At the outset of installing (at about twenty two months old with the reproduce with before onset of installing), from inside the Sep–October, according to the reproduce, this new photoperiod are natural and you will coming down, with respect to the year together with geographical condition of trial station into the Northern Italy (on average, 12L:12D), and also for the next period (regarding 38 weeks old, of December so you can 53 weeks old), artificial light is slowly enhanced (within the indoor place, incandescent light bulb, regarding 60 lux) to locate a great photoperiod from 14L:10D. The new photoperiod are regulated by a timekeeper, and it also try accomplished by turning on the light an hour in advance of sunrise and you can turning off it an hour just after sunset. The fresh new additional environment heat are 10 ± 3.4 °C and you can eleven ± 3.0 °C, correspondingly, into earliest (from the beginning out-of October into the stop out of November) while the 2nd (right away of January toward stop from March) laying symptoms, in the event the research on produce abilities and you can eggs high quality was indeed gathered. The animals were given offer libitum commercial feeds considering its psychological phase (about three varied industrial feeds from inside the broadening months). On basic putting phase (26–33 weeks old, under coming down sheer photoperiod), if types come laying, new wild birds received a professional pelleted supply (PG = 16%, Myself = 11.8 MJ/kg, Ca = step 1.1%, P = 0.6%) and you may maize (PG = 9.1%, Me personally = thirteen.eight MJ/kg), during the a ratio of just one:step 1. It is worthy of remembering one, at that years, just the twin-goal and you may tinted eggshell types presented a changeable onset of installing and you will eggs creation rate, whereas the fresh hens of the other kinds of the brand new Preservation Hub having Biodiversity and you may hatched at the same time of your own studied types, such as the white eggshell breeds, don’t start putting (Padovana reproduce) otherwise they displayed a very scant putting passion (Polverara breed), never ever reaching the tolerance out of ten% hen–date egg production. The reason behind the choice of brand new Maintenance Heart, to not use a feed to possess putting hens during the this period, was because of perhaps not pressuring the fresh pullets to help you eggs design throughout the a season that have coming down temperatures and you may photoperiod. The newest birds increased outdoors, around favorable requirements to own skeletal wellness, perambulating soil and significantly less than solar rays. In the back yard for every single reproduce, the existence of lawn offered to new birds are highest throughout the brand new expanding period than within onset of laying, and that occurred following summer months, in the event that precipitation are scarce and you will did not allow for an excellent lawn regrowth. Of med en Ecuadorian dam 38 in order to 53 weeks of age, and you can under increasing photoperiod, the new hens were given a professional pelleted supply to have putting (PG = 16%, Myself = eleven.5 MJ/kilogram, Ca = cuatro.2%, P = 0.6%). Most of the nourishes comprised primarily regarding maize and you may soybean.

Posted on: 22. Oktober 2023yannik

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